"Museo dei dolmen" (Dolmen Museum) is a virtual museum of Mediterranean and Western Europe prehistory and early history, set up and directed by Federico Bardanzellu.


Dolmen Museum     


Prehistory and Early History of the Mediterranean and Western Europe


Museo dei Dolmen


Movements of peoples in Mediterranean Sea between Bronze and Iron Age


1. Sea Peoples who were they?  > Read more

2. Iconography of the warriors > Read more


3. Bronze Age Collapse                                

Porta delle leonesse

The Lion Gate at Mycenae


Ruins of Tiryns

Acropoli di Micene





  In the thirteenth century BC some devastating earthquakes struck the towns of Greece as Thebes, Tiryns, Mycenae , Midea and Pylos.

  Recent excavations have shown that the preparation of some tablets in the archive of Thebes was cut short due to building materials suddenly precipitated from the upper floors . This may have created serious unrest within a society, such as the Mycenaean, organized in a pyramid structure headed by a king, a priestly class, a warrior class, a craft and a mass of  agricultural and pastoral submissive.

  Around 1250 BC a violent fire destroyed major parts of the acropolis of Mycenae. Even at Thebes were found traces of fire near the Door of Electra. It is not yet clear if these fires are a direct consequence of the earthquake mentioned above or if they were caused by rebellions. The walls of the citadel of Mycenae, however, were strengthened.

  Similarly, it worked in Tiryns .



  A research of the University of Toulouse on pollen grains obtained from the sediments of the salt lake of Hala Sultan Tekke (Cyprus) revealed the existence of a terrible drought in the Mediterranean during the final Bronze Age, which had as a consequence the drastic reduction of the agricultural production.  

   In 1223 BC (or in 1212) pharaoh Merenptah agreed to send shiploads of grain "to keep alive in the land of the Hittites." Three years later, he was attacked by the Libyans and the Sea Peoples.

  In addition, the tablets of Ugarit approximately  in 1200 BC  confirm the continuation of the dramatic famine which occurred in the Hittite kingdom, which asks Ugarit either 2000 bushels of wheat from Mukish to Ura.




 The context of geological, climatic and cultural data indicate the existence of a political-economic collapse in the Aegean-Anatolian area, circa the second half of the thirteenth century.

  In this situation, people would react with mass migrations to areas with more favorable living conditions (Egypt, Palestine, Italy?), risking violent clashes with indigenous peoples too.


4. Origin area of the Sea Peoples > Read more

5. Sea Peoples in the Syro-Palestinian Levant > Read more

6. Doric invasion in Greece > Read more

7. Sea Peoples in Sardinia and Corsica > Read more

8. Sea Peoples in Sicily and the Italian peninsula > Read more

9. The Iron Age > Read more

10. Phoenicians beyond Melqart Pillars> Read more


Credits - Text by  Federico Bardanzellu  2013      facebook