"Museo dei dolmen" (Dolmen Museum) is a virtual museum of Mediterranean and Western Europe prehistory and early history, set up and directed by Federico Bardanzellu.


Dolmen Museum     


Prehistory and Early History of the Mediterranean and Western Europe

Museo dei Dolmen


Movements of peoples in Mediterranean Sea between Bronze and Iron Age

1. Sea Peoples, who were they?  > Read more                                

2. Iconography of the warriors 


Lybian warrior


Pheleset warrior


Naue II swords (reconstruction)


Shardanas warrior at Med. Habu



The depictions of Medinhet Abu Temple show a specific iconography of the invaders.

  Libyans and other Africans are depicted with a fringe of braids on the forehead and neck , while the middle of the skull is partly shaved , with the exception of the summit, where the hair has been allowed to grow and then grouped in a long braid , dropped to the side.

  In some cases they are depicted with his head covered by a cloth held by a ribbon tied to the back, from which some strange plumed hair emerges or has grouped, perhaps hardened with a kind of lacquer.





  Pheleset, Tjeker and Denyen all wearing a plumed helmet, held by the throat by a strip of leather, are equipped with  Achaean type swords.

  Weshesh are wearing a hat from which emerges a single plume .

  Shekelesh have their hair beneath a cloth, in some cases swollen, stopped on the head by a ribbon , wearing a medallion on his chest and are equipped with two spears and a round shield.

   The clothing of Teresh is similar to the Shekeles, but they are deprived of medallion on his chest; but they wear a particular cap or helmet, held by a circle and whose cover, cloth or leather, ends at the top with a barely visible tip. 





Shardanas are wearing a typical horned helmet, sometimes surmounted by a central disk or a ring or a small central sphere and are equipped with swords that technicals call "with outlet terminating in dovetail" and modern scientists have named Naue II, as the first  archaeologist who identified them.

Some of these people, however, were not unknown to the Egyptians. Lukka, Denyen  and Shardanas, in fact, have already been mentioned in the archive of El Amarna (about 1350 BC), including the correspondence of Pharaoh Akhenaten and - probably - also his father Amenophis III for the last years of his reign .

  In it, the Lukka are considered unfair by the ruler of Cyprus; Denyen are mentioned in a letter of Abimilki of Tyre (in the Akkadian form Da-nu-na), as already established in an uncertain place of the kingdom, by someone assumed the land of Canaan; Shardanas guards, finally, are the subject of complaints of the king of Byblos to Pharaoh, which he was a vassal, for not being protected by an attack of an enemy.





A garrison of Shardanas warriors - presumably made ​​up by former prisoners earlier captured - is present among the ranks of the Egyptian army of Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (northern Syrian ebanese-boundary), against the Hittites led by LKing Muwatalli circa 1275 BC.

Other warriors Pheleset, Lukka, and Shekelesh Shardana.sono present as "askaris" Hittite army.

The identification of all these people is quite problematic. Primarily, however, it is essential to identify the reasons for such attacks war and the complete displacement of the population.



3. Bronze Age collapse > Read more

4. Origin area of Sea Peoples > Read more

5. Sea Peoples in Syro-Palestinian Levant > Read more

6. Doric invasion in Greece > Read more

7. Peoples in Sardinia and Corsica > Read more

8. Sea Peoples in Sicily and the Italian peninsula > Read more

9. The Iron Age > Read more

10. Phoenicians beyond Melqart Pillars > Read more


Credits - Text by  Federico Bardanzellu  2013      facebook