"Museo dei dolmen" (Dolmen Museum) is a virtual museum of Mediterranean and Western Europe prehistory and early history, set up and directed by Federico Bardanzellu.


Dolmen Museum     


Prehistory and Early History of the Mediterranean and Western Europe


Museo dei Dolmen


Movements of peoples in Mediterranean Sea between Bronze and Iron Age


1. Sea Peoples, who were they?  > Read more  

2. Iconography of the warriors > Read more

3. The Bronze Age collapse > Read more

4. Origin area of Sea Peoples  > Read more

5. Sea Peoples in Syro-Palestinian Levant > Read more

6. Doric invasion in Greece > Read more

7. Sea Peoples in Sardinia and Corsica > Read more


 8. Sea Peoples in Sicily and the Italian peninsula


Necropolis at Pantalica (Sicily)


              Sicel vase


Dionysius of Halicarnassus cites a landing of the Pelasgians to Delta of river Po

Submicenean ceramic exposed

into Museum of Frattesine


Necropolis at San Giovenale (Latium)




In the Final Bronze Age, Mycenaean presence in Sicily is documented by Thapsos, a  fortified coastal town . Inside, it flourishes culture of Pantalica I (1270-1050). Circa 1200, Thapsos is destroyed, and in the sites of culture of Pantalica it appears Mycenaean III C pottery. At Monte Dessueri Sicily), they  were found some amphoras identical to those of necropolis  of Azor (XI century), near Jaffa (Israel).

  In eastern Sicily, in the subsequent period (1050-850), they appear the Sicel cultures of Cassibile or Pantalica II. These are the elements that would let deduct the identification of Shekelesh with the Sicels and their arrival from eastern Mediterranean to Sicily, analogous to that of Shardanas in Sardinia.

  After the defeat against Ramses III, Shekelesh were not among the Sea Peoples who settled in Palestine. With all probability, therefore, they should have survived in their homeland (Pamphylia) or around the ruins of Ugarit (Syria), they previously destroyed .

  It is not excluded their emigration in Sicily may have been previous the clashes in the Egypt of Merenptah, if it's reliable the high history  of culture of Pantalica  (dating since 1270 BC) and the testimony of Ellanico of Mytilene, reported by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, according to which the landing of the Sicels in Sicily would have happened three generations before the Trojan War, so right around 1275 BC. Dionysius also reports the date fixed by Philistus (twenty-four years before the Trojan War), more less contemporary to the conflict between pharaoh Merneptah and the Sea Peoples .


The misunderstang of a presumed mainland origin of the Sicels arises by the relationship of some Greek and Latin historians about the pre -Roman foundation or the presence of the Sicels in some towns of Latium (Fescennium, Faleria/Civita Castellana before being conquered by the Pelasgians, Coenina , Crustumerium, Antemnae , Gabi , Ardea , Ariccia) and the existence of an important "Sicel district" in Tivoli.

  Among all, however, it is indicative the opinion of the historian Servius who reports the arrival of the Sicels to Latium from Sicily.


  These traditions show that the searching by Shekelesh from the East to areas with more favorable conditions of life, was not exhausted with their settlement to the eastern Sicily, but is continued to the peninsula.

  Their disappearance in Latium would be due, according to the ancient historians, just the action of the Pelasgians/Philistines . The "diaspora" of this people, in fact, reached Po delta, where they founded the town of Adria, too.

  Then, the Pelasgians would have crossed over the Apennines and down the peninsula until Lake Cotilia, ancient Sabina. Here they formed an alliance with the  indigenous peoples of Aborigines, (Latin: Ab origines), and drived off - successfully - Sicels from Latium.


  The transfer of the Sicels  previously allocated in Latium to Sicily, and the consequent reunification with their countrymen would end by rafts three hundred years before the Greek landing there, circa 1035 BC.

  This would have also produced a displacement of people effect  from the mainland to the Aeolian Islands (Lipari especially), documented by objects of continental origin appeared after the destruction of the earlier villages and the formation in the archipelago of a new culture  defined "Ausonius" by the archaeologist Bernabò Brea.

  The confirmation of the pelasgian presence  at Po Delta (Frattesina; Fondo Paviani) in this case too, is the discovery of ceramic submicenean III C ceramic. The discovery of some wheel fragments of one bronze tripod cauldron at Piediluco, and some fragments of twelfth century "Eastern Aegean" pottery at Campo di Santa Susanna, could be also connected to the arrival of Pelasgians in Sabina.



The Pelasgians would then allocated in some Tyrrhenian locations torn by the Sicels, such as Pisa, Saturnia, Sutri, Agylla/Cerveteri, Palo (Alsium) and perhaps even Pirgy/Santa Severa; this could be confirmed by the discovery of imported pottery on Tolfa Mountains (Monte Rovello, San Giovenale, Luni sul Mignone).

   The tradition also shows the existence in Rome of an Aegean - that is, Pelasgian - origin  village on the Palatine Hill, founded by the arcade King Evander.

   It is said also a landing of the Pelasgians/Philistines in Metaponto (Basilicata). In this case, too, it may have left clues in the discovery of Mycenaean III C pottery locally manufactured in Termitito and Broglio of Trebisacce. But there is no trace of such appropriations in archaeological documents related to the subsequent Iron Age.


9. The Iron Age > Read more

10. Phoenicians beyond Melqart Pillars > Read more


Credits - Text by  Federico Bardanzellu  2013      facebook